STAGE 12   Lesson 1    desktop  


  • GRAMMAR:  In this Stage you are introduced to the rest of the verb endings for the imperfect and perfect tenses.  Read my introduction below and then  turn to page 212 and carefully review "About the Language" before you begin the lesson.    

    IMPERFECT Tense 
    Here is the full conjugation of the verb porto in the imperfect tense.  I have highlighted the parts of the verb.  The white portion is usually referred to as the present stem.  Notice that each form has the letters -ba just before the personal endings. This is sometimes referred to as a tense marker since its presence  tells you that this verb is in the imperfect tense.  The letter on the end of the verb are known as the personal ending.  These endings appear in all tenses except the perfect tense.  They must be memorized.

    portabam, I was carrying
    portabas, you were carrying
    portabat, he/she/it
    portabamus, we
    portabatis, you (pl,)
    portabant, they

    The personal endings are: m, s, t, mus, tis, nt

    PERFECT Tense 
    Here is the full conjugation of the verb porto in the perfect tense.  I have highlighted the endings in green.  These must be memorized.  The remainder is what is called the perfect stem.  When you look up a verb in a dictionary, it will be the third word.  This is called the third principle part of the verb.  

    Here is what the full dictionary entry of the verb porto looks like:
    porto, portare, portavi, portatus

    portavi, I (have) carried
    portavisti, you (have) carried
    portavit, he/whe/it (has) carried
    portavimus, we
    portavistis, you (pl.)
    portaverunt, they 

    The personal endings are: i, isti, it, imus, istis, erunt

    It is important that you memorize these endings. Not only do they tell you what the understood subject is, but in most instances they will by their spelling tell you that the verb is in the perfect tense.

  • Turn to page 202 in your book.  

  • ASSIGNMENT:  Write out a translation for each caption on pages 202-204. 

1.    Syphax et Celer in portu stabant.

2.    amici montem spectabant.

3.    Syphax amico dixit, "ego prope portum servos vendebam."

4.    "ego subito sonos audivi."

5.    Celer Syphaci respondit, "tu sonos audivisti."

6.    "ego tremores sensi.  ego prope montem ambulabam."

7.    Poppaea et Lucrio in atrio stabant.  solliciti erant.

8.    Poppaea Lucrioni dixit, "ego in foro eram."

9.    "ego tibi togam quaerebam.  ego nubem mirabilem conspexi."

10.    Lucrio Poppaeae respondit, "tu nubem conspexisti."

11.    "ego cinerem sensi.  ego flammas vidi."

12.    Marcus et Quartus in foro erant.  Sulla ad fratres contendit.

13.    Sulla fratribus dixit, "ego ad theatrum contendebam."

14.    "ego sonos audivi et tremores sensi."

15.    "vos sonos audivistis?  vos tremores sensistis?"

16.    fratres Sullae responderunt, "nos tremores sensimus et sonos audivimus."

17.    "nos nubem mirabilem vidimus.  nos solliciti sumus."

  • Questions and comments: